Evolution Helps Explain Addiction
Several years ago, Radiolab had an episode about addiction called The Fix. It featured Dr. Anna Rose Childress, who discussed the idea that those who suffer from addiction are simply more receptive to rewards from the pleasure center, or, “they are the fittest of the fit in evolutionary terms”. The theory is that we, as humans, evolved to be very responsive to the things that trigger the pleasure center, because these are things that kept us alive and helped us find a mate. Sweet fruit is safer to eat than bitter berries. Humans that were driven to get up first thing in the morning and beat everyone else to the orange tree after tasting the sweet fruit were more likely to survive than those who would eat whatever berries they found on the ground. Those that were most motivated by the feeling of being hugged by a loved one, would work harder to find a mate. So as a species, we evolved to be responsive to our pleasure center.
This is a feature that is no longer crucial to survival in the modern world. We go to a grocery store for our food, where everything is safe to eat. But this hasn’t changed the fact that we are still very responsive to our pleasure center, some more than others. So when a drug is able to trigger that pleasure center, we are also very responsive – and continue to seek it out. Those that are most susceptible to drug addiction, are those that are most attuned to their pleasure center. Historically, they would have been the individuals that would have worked the hardest for the best food, been best at finding a sexual partner, or built the safest house. Up until recently, humans have been rewarded for being overly receptive to the rewards of the pleasure center. Now, as Jad Abumrad put it, “it is a weakness born of a strength”.
Another Evolutionary Trait
In a study published in Frontiers in Psychology, Samuel Veissière and Moriah Stendel, both of McGill University’s Department of Psychiatry, argue that evolution plays a similar role in explaining our behavior on social media. Historically, it was important for humans to constantly watch and be watched by others to pick up on social cues and cultural norms. By constantly monitoring those around us, we learned how to interact with others, forming bonds that could save our lives. We respond strongly to feedback on our interactions, because this helps confirm we are behaving according to societal norms. This is how we formed groups that were able to act as one (culture), overtaking groups that could not behave cohesively. Jonathan Haidt does an excellent job of explaining why this is important in The Righteous Mind, using a team of rowers that actg as one as his metaphor.
These evolutionary tendencies have kicked into overdrive with access to social media. Like those who are extremely attuned to rewards from the pleasure center, many of us constantly crave the ability to monitor our friends’ every move, and to have our friends monitor and approve our actions. This is simply evolution. Those of us that are “the fittest of the fit in evolutionary terms” are more likely to crave the ability to monitor friends and have friends affirm our actions in the form of likes and retweets. Historically, this was a trait that kept us alive. Today, it is a trait that keeps us glued to social media – with other possible consequences we are only beginning to understand.
This is a step towards understanding what social media is doing to our brains. If we can understand the reasons why we are drawn to social media, we can begin to understand the degree to which it is impacting our brains. It is important not to draw sweeping conclusions. This does not mean that entire generations are addicted to social media or do not understand how to carry on meaningful relationships in the real world. It does, however, lead me closer to the conclusion that social media platforms are exploiting our evolutionary behaviors to increase our usage.